Business, Legal & Accounting Glossary
Accounting Scandals are instances when corporations have been found responsible for serious breaches of Accounting Ethics.
Accounting Scandals are instances when corporations have been found responsible for serious breaches of Accounting Ethics, typically by falsifying or manipulating information so that their financial statements do not provide a true and fair view of the company’s actual performance.
Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations. Such misdeeds typically involve complex methods for misusing or misdirecting funds, overstating revenues, understating expenses, overstating the value of corporate assets or underreporting the existence of liabilities, sometimes with the cooperation of officials in other corporations or affiliates.
In public companies, this type of “creative accounting” can amount to fraud and investigations are typically launched by government oversight agencies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States.
In 2002, a wave of separate but often related accounting scandals became known to the public in the U.S. All of the leading public accounting firms—Arthur Andersen, Deloitte & Touche, Ernst & Young, KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers— and others have admitted to or have been charged with negligence in the execution of their duty as auditors to identify and prevent the publication of falsified financial reports by their corporate clients which had the effect of giving a misleading impression of their client companies’ financial status. In several cases, the monetary amounts of the fraud involved are in the billions of USD.
Often, this involves deceptive adjustments to their balance sheets or profit and loss accounts – using methods such as:
Whilst Senior Executives have on occasion used such means for private gain, the objective more often than not is to create a false impression of Corporate success in order to meet the expectations of the financial markets.
One of the most notorious examples of accounting scandals in recent times is the Enrol scandal of 2001, this particular example effectively demonstrates the devastating impact of both false accounting and failures in auditing.
The Enron scandal resulted in the indictment and criminal conviction of the Big Five auditor Arthur Andersen on June 15, 2002. Although the conviction was overturned on May 31, 2005 by the Supreme Court of the United States, the firm ceased performing audits and is currently unwinding its business operations.
There was a general perception that there are other accountancy scandals waiting to be uncovered, which contributed to the stock market downturn of 2002.
On July 9, 2002, George W. Bush gave a speech about recent accounting scandals that have been uncovered. In spite of its stern tone, the speech did not focus on establishing new policy, but instead focused on actually enforcing current laws, which include holding CEOs and directors personally responsible for accountancy fraud.
In July 2002, WorldCom filed for bankruptcy protection, in the largest corporate insolvency ever.
These scandals reignited the debate over the relative merits of US GAAP, which takes a “rules-based” approach to accounting, versus International Accounting Standards and UK GAAP, which takes a “principles-based” approach. The Financial Accounting Standards Board announced that it intends to introduce more principles-based standards. More radical means of accounting reform have been proposed, but so far have very little support. The debate itself, however, overlooks the difficulties of classifying any system of knowledge, including accounting, as rules-based or principles-based.
In 2005, after a scandal on insurance and mutual funds the year before, AIG is under investigation for accounting fraud. The company already lost over 45 billion US dollars worth of market capitalisation because of the scandal. This was the fastest decrease since the WorldCom and Enron scandals. Investigations also discovered over a billion US dollars worth of errors in accounting transactions. The future outcome for the company is still pending.
On a lighter note, the 2002 Ig Nobel Prize in Economics went to the CEOs of those companies involved in the corporate accounting scandals of that year for “adapting the mathematical concept of imaginary numbers for use in the business world”.
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This glossary post was last updated: 18th April, 2020 | 282 Views.