Free Online Glossary & Definitions For Accountancy Jargon
In the USA, the most important class of ordinary shares.
A description of property or a person that is in the best condition.
An ancient device used for performing arithmetic calculations; by sliding beads along rods or within grooves.
Noun: the action of being abated or abating: subsiding or ending.
Law: the removal or reduction of a nuisance.
The abatement cost is a cost that is paid by a business when they have been asked to reduce or remove any negative by products or negative nuisances that are created during, at or after the time of production.
Shortened but audited financial statement that a qualifying small or medium firm was allowed to file with registrar of companies in the UK.
A loss arising from a manufacturing or chemical progress in excess of normal loss.
Losses arising in business that should have been avoided.
Abridged accounts are general purpose financial statements intended for both company members and publication.
To assimilate or incorporate amounts in an account or group of accounts so that they are absorbed and lose their identity.
Method that records greater depreciation than straight-line depreciation in the early years and less depreciation than straight-line in the later years of an asset’s holding period.
The action of a lender in demanding early repayment when a borrower defaults on a debt.
|Acceptance Supra Protest|
In contracts, is a third person, who, after protest for non-acceptance by the drawee, accepts the bill for the honour of the drawer, or of the particular endorser.
A business partnership (or possibly a limited company) in which the partners are qualified accountants. The firm undertakes work for clients in respect of audit, accounts preparation, tax and similar activities.
The collective body of persons qualified in accounting, and working in accounting-related areas. Usually they are members of a professional body, membership of which is attained by passing examinations.
The process of identifying, measuring and communicating financial information about an entity to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information.
The relationship between assets, liabilities and ownership interest.
A transaction or change (internal or external) recognised by the accounting recording system.
Time period for which financial statements are prepared (e.g. month, quarter, year).
Accounting methods which have been judged by business enterprises to be most appropriate to their circumstances and adopted by them for the purpose of preparing their financial statements.
|Accounting Series Release|
In the USA, the former name for a Financial Reporting Release.
Definitive statements of best practice issued by a body having suitable authority.
|Accounting Standards Board|
The authority in the UK which issues definitive statements of best accounting practice.
|Accounting Standards Committee|
Membership of the Accounting Standards Committee was both part-time and unpaid. In 1990 and as a result of serious doubts concerning the effective of the committee’s effectiveness – the committee was replaced by the Accounting Standards Boards. Within it’s lifetime the ASC issued a total of 25 Statements Of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAPs), a number
An accounting system is the system used to manage the income, expenses, and other financial activities of a business.
Another name for a book-keeper.
Financial statements prepared at the end of a period to reflect the profit of loss or the period and financial position at the end of the period.
Amounts due for payment to suppliers of goods or services, also described as trade creditors.
Amounts due from customers, also described as a trade debtors.
The accruals process allows a business to adjust the monthly accounts for payments made in arrears. This process is the reverse of prepayments.
An accounting method that tries to match the recognition of revenues earned with the expenses incurred in generating those revenues. It ignores the timing of the cash flows associated with revenues and expenses.
The effects of transactions and other events are recognised when they occur (and not as cash or its equivalent is received or paid) and they are recorded in the accounting records and reported in the financial statements of the periods to which they relate (see also matching).
Total depreciation of a non-current (fixed) asset, deducted from original cost to give net book value.
|Acid Test Ratio|
The ratio of liquid assets to current liabilities.
Company that becomes controlled by another.
Company that obtains control of another.
An acquisition takes place where one company – the acquirer – acquires control of another – the acquiree – usually through purchase of shares.
Production of consolidated financial statements for an acquisition.
In activity-based costing, the identification and description of activities in an organisation.
Commodities that can be purchased and used, as opposed to goods traded on a futures contract. (or) Expenses or receipts that have actually occurred, as opposed to targets, budgets, or other projections.
In proportion to the estimated value of the goods or transaction concerned.
|Adjusted Gross Income|
In the USA, the difference between the gross income of a taxpayer and the adjustments to income.
Costs of managing and running a business.
A document issued by a supplier of goods that advises the customer that the goods have been sent.
A principle underlying policies in employment and education aimed at ensuring equal opportunities for all.
Debtors who have owed money to the business for a defined period of time.
|Aged Debtors Analysis|
A report that analyses amounts owed by customers according to the length of time that those amounts have remained unpaid. For example, all customers who have outstanding invoices that are over a month old.
A relationship between a principal and an agent. In the case of a limited liability company, the shareholder is the principal and the director is the agent.
A theoretical model, developed by academics, to explain how the relationship between a principal and an agent may have economic consequences.
An agent is a person appointed by another person, known as the principle, to act on his or her behalf.
An aggregator is a firm that collates and presents information about an individual’s financial activities and assets.
A takeover bid that is supported by a majority of the shareholders of the target company.
To assign a whole item of cost, or of revenue, to a simple cost centre, account or time period.
Shares distributed by allotment to new shareholders.
Process similar to depreciation, usually applied to intangible fixed assets.
|Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)|
A tax allowance up to the value of £200,000 each tax year, which can be offset against corporation tax when your company buys assets.
|Annual Percentage Rate (APR)|
The annual equivalent rate of return on a loan or investment in which the rate of interest and charges are specified in terms of an annual rate of interest. Most investment institutions are now required by law to specify the APR when the interest intervals are more frequent than annually.
A document produced each year by limited liability companies containing the accounting information required by law. Larger companies also provide information and pictures of the activities of the company.
An income-generating investment whereby, in return for the payment of a single lump sum, the annuitant receives regular amounts of income over a predefined period.
An annuity in which payments continue for a specified period irrespective of the life or death of the person covered.
Cancellation usually of a bankruptcy.
To date a document before the date on which it is drawn up.
Applications software are computer programs that are design for a specific purpose or application.
A method of depreciation that values an asset at the beginning of an accounting period and again at the end.
These show the way that net profit is distributed (usually in the form of cash dividends) between partners in a partnership or between shareholders and reserve funds in a company.
In arbitration an independent third party considers both sides in a dispute, and makes a decision to resolve it.
|Articles Of Association|
Document setting out the relative rights of shareholders in a limited liability company.
The term ‘articulation’ is used to refer to the impact of transactions on the balance sheet and profit and loss account through application of the accounting equation.
An entity that is recognised by the law as a legal person.
|As Per Advice|
As Per Advice are the words written on a bill of exchange to indicate that the drawee has been informed that the bill is being drawn on him or her.
The Asset Coverage Ratio measures the ability of a company to cover it’s debt obligations with it’s assets.
An asset-backed security (ABS) is a financial security collateralised by a pool of assets such as loans, leases, credit card debt, royalties or receivables.
Rights or other access to future economic benefits controlled by an entity as a result of past transactions or events.
One company exercises significant influence over another, falling short of complete control.
Insurance against an eventuality that must occur.
The words used on a bill of exchange to indicate that payment is due on presentation.
An audit is the independent examination of, and expression of opinion on, financial statements of an entity.
An employee of an accountancy firm, usually holding an accountancy qualification, given a significant level of responsibility in carrying out an audit assignment and responsible to the partner in charge of the audit.
A written document that explains the auditing policies and procedures of a firm.
|Authorised Share Capital|
The total value of shares that the company could issue, as distinct from the up and paid up share capital.
It is known that a credit customer (debtor) is unable to pay the amount due.
A statement of the financial position of an entity showing assets, liabilities and ownership interest.
An arrangement with a bank to borrow money as required up to an agreed limit.
This refers to comparing the business’ bank balance with a bank statement to spot differences.
The name sometimes given to loan finance (more commonly in the USA).
The book value of an asset or group of assets is the price at which they were originally acquired, in many cases equal to purchase price.
Member of a stock exchange who arranges purchase and sale of shares and may also provide an information service giving buy/sell/hold recommendations.
Bulletin written by a stockbroking firm for circulation to its clients, providing analysis and guidance on companies as potential investments.
A transaction in which one company acquires control of another.
Period (usually 12 months) during which the peaks and troughs of activity of a business form a pattern which is repeated on a regular basis.
A business which exists independently of it’s owners.
The company has called upon the shareholders who first bought the shares, to make their payment in full.
An amount of finance provided to enable a business to acquire assets and sustain it’s operations.
Capital allowances is the practice of allowing a company to get tax relief on tangible capital expenditure by allowing it to be expensed against it’s annual pre-tax income.
Spending on non-current (fixed) assets of a business.
Issue of shares to existing shareholders in proportion to shares already held. Raises no new finance but changes the mix of share capital and reserves.
Cash on hand (such as money held in a cash box or a safe) and deposits in a bank that may be withdrawn on demand.
Short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
|Cash Flow Projections|
Statements of cash expected to flow into the business and cash expected to flow out over a particular period.
|Cash Flow Statement|
Provides information about changes in financial position.
The person who chairs the meetings of the board of directors of a company (preferably not the chief executive).
In relation to interest or taxes, describes the reduction in ownership interest reported in the income statement (profit and loss account) due to the cost of interest and tax payable.
When a cardholder cancels a credit or debit card transaction before it has been processed. When a chargeback occurs many banks charge the seller a fee.
|Chart of Accounts|
A list of all of the accounts that are held in which business transactions are classified and recorded.
The director in charge of the day-to-day running of a company.
Assets that turn from cash to goods, and then back to cash again. Examples include purchasing materials to build a product; manufacturing the product (which results in stock); and selling the stock for cash.
Period during which those who are ‘insiders’ to a listed company should not buy or sell shares.
|Closing the Books|
A term used to describe making the final entries, and balancing the profit and loss account at the end of the financial year.
A method of borrowing money from commercial institutions such as banks.
The Companies Act 1985 as modified by the Companies Act 1989. Legislation to control the activities of limited liability companies.
A UK government department that collects and stores information regarding limited companies. Registered businesses must provide a statement at the end of each financial year.
Qualitative characteristic expected in financial statements, comparable within company and between companies.
Qualitative characteristic expected in financial statements.
When interest is applied to capital and accrued up until that particular date. For example, a £1,000 loan with 20% interest will have a balance of £1,200 after the first year, then £1,440 at the end of the second year.
A statement of principles providing generally accepted guidance for the development of new reporting practices and for challenging and evaluating the existing practices.
Sometimes used with a stronger meaning of understating assets and overstating liabilities.
The measurement and display of similar transactions and other events is carried out in a consistent way throughout an entity within each accounting period and from one period to the next, and also in a consistent way by different entities.
|Consolidated Financial Statements|
Present financial information about the group as a single reporting entity.
Consolidation is a process that aggregates the total assets, liabilities and results of the parent and its subsidiaries (the group) in the consolidated financial statements.
Obligations that are not recognised in the balance sheet because they depend upon some future event happening.
The power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.
This refers to transferring bookkeeping records between accounting software programs. It involves taking closing balances from the previous software and entering it into the new software as opening balances.
Loan finance for a business that is later converted into share capital.
The system by which companies are directed and controlled. Boards of directors are responsible for the governance of their companies.
|Corporate Recovery Department|
Part of an accountancy firm which specialises in assisting companies to recover from financial problems.
|Corporate Social Responsibility|
Companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interactions with stakeholders.
Tax payable by companies, based on the taxable profits of the period.
The cost of a non-current asset is the cost of making it ready for use, cost of finished goods is cost of bringing them to the present condition and location.
|Cost Of Goods Sold|
Materials, labour and other costs directly related to the goods or services provided.
Rate of interest payable on a loan.
|Credit (bookkeeping system)|
Entries in the credit column of a ledger account represent increases in liabilities, increases in ownership interest, revenue, or decreases in assets.
|Credit (Terms Of Business)|
The supplier agrees to allow the customer to make payment some time after the delivery of the goods or services. Typical trade credit periods range from 30 to 60 days but each agreement is different.
A document sent to a customer of a business cancelling the customer’s debt to the business, usually because the customer has returned defective goods or has received inadequate service.
A business entity takes delivery of goods or services and is allowed to make payment at a later date.
A business entity sells goods or services and allows the customer to make payment at a later date.
A person or organisation to whom money is owed by the entity.
The point in the business cycle at which revenue may be recognised.
An asset that is expected to be converted into cash within the trading cycle.
A liability which satisfies any of the following criteria: (a) it is expected to be settled in the entity’s normal operating cycle; (b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded; (c) it is due to be settled within 12 months after the balance sheet date.
A method of valuing assets and liabilities which takes account of changing prices, as an alternative to historical cost.
|Customers’ Collection Period|
Average number of days credit taken by customers.
Procedures applied to the accounting records at the end of an accounting period to ensure that all transactions for the period are recorded and any transactions not relevant to the period are excluded.
A written acknowledgement of a debt – a name used for loan financing taken up by a company.
|Debt To Total Assets Ratio|
Debt-to-total-assets is a leverage ratio that defines the (total) amount of debt relative to assets.
A person or organisation that owes money to the entity.
Purchases that are claimed as business expenses are described as deductible; they reduce business profits but reduce the amount of income tax owed.
|Deep Discount Bond|
A loan issued at a relatively low price compared to its nominal value.
Failure to meet obligations as they fall due for payment.
An asset whose benefit is delayed beyond the period expected for a current asset, but which does not meet the definition of a fixed asset.
Revenue, such as a government grant, is received in advance of performing the related activity. The deferred income is held in the balance sheet as a type of liability until performance is achieved and is then released to the income statement.
The obligation to pay tax is deferred (postponed) under tax law beyond the normal date of payment.
A slip of paper that accompanies cash or cheque payment. It details the amount of the deposit, the bank account the funds should be paid into, and the date of deposit.
Cost of a non-current (fixed) asset minus residual value.
The systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life. The depreciable amount is cost less residual value.
The act of removing an item from the financial statements because the item no longer satisfies the conditions for recognition.
|Difference On Consolidation|
Difference between fair value of the payment for a subsidiary and the fair value of net assets acquired, more commonly called goodwill.
|Direct Method (Of Operating Cash Flow)|
Presents cash inflows and cash outflows.
A document issued by the European Union requiring all Member States to adapt their national law to be consistent with the Directive.
Person(s) appointed by shareholders of a limited liability company to manage the affairs of the company.
A supplier of goods or services allows a business to deduct an amount called a discount, for prompt payment of an invoiced amount. The discount is often expressed a percentage of the invoiced amount.
Amount paid to a shareholder, usually in the form of cash, as a reward for investment in the company. The amount of dividend paid is proportionate to the number of shares held.
Earnings per share divided by dividend per share.
Dividend per share divided by current market price.
Amounts due from credit customers where there is concern that the customer may be unable to pay.
Cash taken for personal use, in sole trader or partnership business, treated as a reduction of ownership interest.
|Earnings For Ordinary Shareholders|
Profit after deducting interest charges and taxation and after deducting preference dividends (but before deducting extraordinary items).
|Earnings Per Share|
Calculated as earnings for ordinary shareholders divided by the number of shares which have been issued by the company.
An abbreviation for “earnings before interest and tax.”
|Effective Interest Rate|
The rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument.
|Efficient Markets Hypothesis|
Share prices in a stock market react immediately to the announcement of new information.
International financial reporting standards approved for use in Member States of the European Union through a formal process of endorsement.
A business activity or a commercial project.
The value of entering into acquisition of an asset or liability, usually replacement cost.
A professional who investigates and writes reports on ordinary share investments in companies (usually for the benefit of investors in shares).
A description applied to the ordinary share capital of an entity.
Reports in the balance sheet the parent or group’s share of the investment in the share capital and reserves of an associated company.
A collection of equity shares.
Shares in a company which participate in sharing dividends and in sharing any surplus on winding up, after all liabilities have been met.
A market in which bonds are issued in the capital market of one country to a non-resident borrower from another country.
A method of valuing assets and liabilities based on selling prices, as an alternative to historical cost.
An expense is caused by a transaction or event arising during the ordinary activities of the business which causes a decrease in the ownership interest.
Reporting financial information to those users with a valid claim to receive it, but who are not allowed access to the day-to-day records of the business.
|External Users (Of Financial Statements)|
Users of financial statements who have a valid interest but are not permitted access to the day-to-day records of the company.
This means receiving funds instantly without having to wait for payment from a customer. A factoring company pays a percentage of the invoice to the business being paid, as much as 95%, and takes a cut of the cost.
The amount at which an asset or liability could be exchanged in an arm’s-length transaction between a willing buyer and a willing seller.
Qualitative characteristic, information represents what it purports to represent.
A term usually applied to external reporting by a business where that reporting is presented in financial terms.
The ability of the company to respond to unexpected needs or opportunities.
Ratio of loan finance to equity capital and reserves.
Information which may be reported in money terms.
|Financial Reporting Standard|
Title of an accounting standard issued by the UK Accounting Standards Board as a definitive statement of best practice (issued from 1990 onwards – predecessor documents are Statements of Standard Accounting Practice, many of which remain valid).
Exists where a company has loan finance, especially long-term loan finance where the company cannot relinquish its commitment. The risk relates to being unable to meet payments of interest or repayment of capital as they fall due.
Documents presenting accounting information which is expected to have a useful purpose.
The ability to survive on an ongoing basis.
Activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of the entity.
An asset that is held by an enterprise for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes on a continuing basis in the reporting entity’s activities.
|Fixed Assets Usage|
Revenue divided by net book value of fixed assets.
Finance provided to support the acquisition of fixed assets.
One which is not affected by changes in the level of output over a defined period of time.
Security taken by lender which floats over all the assets and crystallises over particular assets if the security is required.
Estimate of future performance and position based on stated assumptions and usually including a quantified amount.
A list of items which may appear in a financial statement, setting out the order in which they are to appear.
|Forward Exchange Contract|
An agreement to buy foreign currency at a fixed future date and at an agreed price.
Shares on which the amount of share capital has been paid in full to the company.
A finance professional who manages a collection (portfolio) of investments, usually for an insurance company, a pension fund business or a professional fund management business which invests money on behalf of clients.
|Gains And Losses|
This typically refers to losses due to foreign currency transactions. The fluctuation of exchange rates between the time a payment is made and when the bank converts the currency may result in a gain or loss.
General Ledger (GL) is a complete record of the financial transactions over the life of a company.
|General Purpose Financial Statements|
Documents containing accounting information which would be expected to be of interest to a wide range of user groups. For a limited liability company there would be: a balance sheet, a profit and loss account, a statement of recognised gains and losses and a cash flow statement.
|Going Concern Basis|
The assumption that the business will continue operating into the foreseeable future.
Goodwill on acquisition is the difference between the fair value of the amount paid for an investment in a subsidiary and the fair value of the net assets acquired.
Before making deductions.
Sales minus cost of sales before deducting administration and selling expenses (another name for gross profit). Usually applied when discussing a particular line of activity.
|Gross Margin Ratio|
Gross profit as a percentage of sales.
Sales minus cost of sales before deducting administration and selling expenses (see also gross margin).
Economic entity formed by parent and one or more subsidiaries.
A page at the start of the annual report setting out key measures of performance during the reporting period.
This refers to when equipment used by the business is paid off through a finance company. At the end of the lease period the company can pay a final fee to own it or start payments for a new piece of equipment.
Method of valuing assets and liabilities based on their original cost without adjustment for changing prices.
|HM Revenue And Customs (HMRC)|
The UK government’s tax-gathering organisation (previously called the Inland Revenue).
International Accounting Standard, issued by the IASB’s predecessor body.
International Accounting Standards Board, an independent body that sets accounting standards accepted as a basis for accounting in many countries, including all Member States of the European Union.
The accounting standards and guidance issued by the IASB.
International Financial Reporting Standard, issued by the IASB.
A reduction in the carrying value of an asset, beyond the expected depreciation, which must be reflected by reducing the amount recorded in the balance sheet.
Testing assets for evidence of any impairment.
Test that the business can expect to recover the carrying value of the intangible asset, through either using it or selling.
A change in, or addition to, a non-current (fixed) asset that extends its useful life or increases the expected future benefit. Contrast with repair which restores the existing useful life or existing expected future benefit.
Financial statement presenting revenues, expenses, and profit. Also called profit and loss account.
date of. The date on which a company comes into existence.
|Indirect Method (Of Operating Cash Flow)|
Calculates operating cash flow by adjusting operating profit for non-cash items and for changes in working capital.
Information gained by someone inside, or close to, a listed company which could confer a financial advantage if used to buy or sell shares. It is illegal for a person who is in possession of inside information to buy or sell shares on the basis of that information.
A state where an individual or organisation can no longer meet financial obligations with lender(s) when their debts come due.
An organisation whose business includes regular investment in shares of companies, examples being an insurance company, a pension fund, a charity, an investment trust, a unit trust, a merchant bank.
Without shape or form, cannot be touched.
|Interest (On Loans)|
The percentage return on capital required by the lender (usually expressed as a percentage per annum).
Financial statements issued in the period between annual reports, usually half-yearly or quarterly.
Reporting financial information to those users inside a business, at various levels of management, at a level of detail appropriate to the recipient.
Stocks of goods held for manufacture or for resale.
The acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents.
Persons or organisations which have provided money to a business in exchange for a share of ownership.
|Joint And Several Liability (In A Partnership)|
The partnership liabilities are shared jointly but each person is responsible for the whole of the partnership.
|Key Performance Indicators|
Quantified measures of factors that help to measure the performance of the business effectively.
Acquiring the use of an asset through a rental agreement.
Books that contain all the details of financial accounts. There are three types of ledgers: the general ledger, the accounts receivable ledger, and the accounts payable ledger.
Representing a transaction to reflect it’s legal status, which might not be the same as it’s economic form.
Alternative term for gearing, commonly used in the USA.
Obligations of an entity to transfer economic benefits as a result of past transactions or events.
A phrase used to indicate that those having liability in respect of some amount due may be able to invoke some agreed limit on that liability.
|Limited Liability Company|
Company where the liability of the owners is limited to the amount of capital they have agreed to contribute.
The extent to which a business has access to cash or items which can readily be exchanged for cash.
A company whose shares are listed by the Stock Exchange as being available for buying and selling under the rules and safeguards of the Exchange.
Rules imposed by the Stock Exchange on companies whose shares are listed for buying and selling.
Issued by the UK Listing Authority of the Financial Services Authority to regulate companies listed on the UK Stock Exchange. Includes rules on accounting information in annual reports.
Agreement made by the company with a lender of long-term finance, protecting the loan by imposing conditions on the company, usually to restrict further borrowing.
A method of borrowing from commercial institutions such as banks.
Loan finance traded on a stock exchange.
Money lent to a business for a fixed period, giving that business a commitment to pay interest for the period specified and to repay the loan at the end of the period Also called non-current liabilities information in the financial statements should show the commercial substance of the situation.
Collective term for those persons responsible for the day-to-day running of a business.
Reporting accounting information within a business, for management use only.
Profit, seen as the ‘margin’ between revenue and expense.
|Market Value (Of A Share)|
The price for which a share could be transferred between a willing buyer and a willing seller.
|Marking To Market|
Valuing a marketable asset at it’s current market price.
When a business increases the price of an item before it is sold. For example: if a Fridge was bought for £600 and is sold for £800, the markup is £200.
Expenses are matched against revenues in the period they are incurred (see also accruals basis).
Information is material if its omission or misstatement could influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements.
The date on which a liability is due for repayment.
|Maturity Profile Of Debt|
The timing of loan repayments by a company in the future.
|Memorandum (For A Company)|
Document setting out main objects of the company and it’s powers to act.
Two organisations agree to work together in a situation where neither can be regarded as having acquired the other.
The ownership interest in a company held by persons other than the parent company and it’s subsidiary undertakings. Also called a non-controlling interest.
MIRR – modified investment rate of return is a financial tool that is used to determine the attractiveness of an investment. MIRR is used in capital budgeting as a tool to rank investments of equal size. MIRR, the modified investment rate of return is the new (IRR) internal rate of return; as a result, it
Failure to exhibit care that one ought to exhibit.
After making deductions.
Assets minus liabilities (equals ownership interest).
|Net Book Value|
Cost of non-current (fixed) asset minus accumulated depreciation.
Sales minus cost of sales minus all administrative and selling costs.
|Net Realisable Value|
The proceeds of selling an item, less the costs of selling.
Qualitative characteristic of freedom from bias.
|Nominal Value (Of A Share)|
The amount stated on the face of a share certificate as the named value of the share when issued.
See minority interest.
Any asset that does not meet the definition of a current asset. Also described as fixed assets.
Any liability that does not meet the definition of a current liability. Also described as long-term liabilities.
|Notes To The Accounts|
Information in financial statements that gives more detail about items in the financial statements.
An arrangement to keep matching assets and liabilities away from the entity’s balance sheet.
|Offer For Sale|
A company makes a general offer of it’s shares to the public.
|Opening the Books|
When a business closes their books at the end of the year and a new set is opened.
The principal revenue-producing activities of the entity and other activities that are not investing or financing activities.
|Operating And Financial Review|
Section of the annual report of many companies which explains the main features of the financial statements.
Operating profit as a percentage of sales.
Exists where there are factors, such as a high level of fixed operating costs, which would cause profits to fluctuate through changes in operating conditions.
The ratio of fixed operating costs to variable operating costs.
Buying the rights to purchase an asset for a certain period of time. For example, a business may option an asset for 6 months for 10% of the sale cost. During this time they do not own the asset; however, the company that does own it is not allowed to sell it during this period.
Shares in a company which entitle the holder to a share of the dividend declared and a share in net assets on closing down the business.
OTE is on target or on track earnings. This is a term that will often be found in an advertisement for a job, especially when the advertisement is recruiting salespeople. Normally the pay structure will have two parts to it, a fixed part of the income and then a fixed sum or percentage of the
The residual amount found by deducting all of the entity’s liabilities from all of the entity’s assets. (Also called equity interest.)
Company which controls one or more subsidiaries in a group.
Two or more persons in business together with the aim of making a profit.
A document setting out the agreement of the partners on how the partnership is to be conducted (including the arrangements for sharing profits and losses).
Legislation which governs the conduct of a partnership and which should be used where no partnership deed has been written.
|Payment On Account|
Payment on Account is a tax payment made twice a year by self-employed people in order to spread the cost of the year’s tax. It is calculated by looking at your previous year’s tax bill, and is due in two instalments. The Payment on Account can be thought of as a way of paying off some of your tax bill in advance.
A small amount of cash withdrawn from the bank used to buy miscellaneous items, e.g. stationary, stamps, milk, etc.
|Portfolio (Of Investment)|
A collection of investments.
|Portfolio Of Shares|
A collection of shares held by an investor.
Shares in a company which give the holder a preference (although not an automatic right) to receive a dividend before any ordinary share dividend is declared.
The first announcement by a listed company of it’s profit for the most recent accounting period. Precedes the publication of the full annual report. The announcement is made to the entire stock market so that all investors receive information at the same time.
An amount paid in addition, or extra.
An amount paid for in advance for an benefit to the business, such as insurance premiums or rent in advance. Initially recognised as an asset, then transferred to expense in the period when the benefit is enjoyed. (Also called a prepaid expense.)
A condition of the IASB system, equivalent to true and fair view in the UK ASB system.
Information which, if known to the market, would affect the price of a share.
Market price of a share divided by earnings per share.
|Primary Financial Statements|
The balance sheet, profit and loss account, statement of total recognised gains and losses and cash flow statement.
The agreed amount of a loan, on which interest will be charged during the period of the loan.
|Private Limited Company (Ltd)|
A company which has limited liability but is not permitted to offer it’s shares to the public.
|Production Overhead Costs|
Costs of production that are spread across all output, rather than being identified with specific goods or services.
Calculated as revenue minus expenses.
|Profit And Loss Account|
Financial statement presenting revenues, expenses, and profit. Also called income statement.
Hypothetical assumptions used to estimate future financial statements.
An investor who is considering whether to invest in a company.
Financial statements and supporting detailed descriptions published when a company is offering shares for sale to the public.
A liability of uncertain timing or amount.
|Provision For Doubtful Debts|
An estimate of the risk of not collecting full payment from credit customers, reported as a deduction from trade receivables (debtors) in the balance sheet.
A degree of caution in the exercise of the judgements needed in making the estimates required under conditions of uncertainty, such that gains and assets are not overstated and losses and liabilities are not understated.
|Public Limited Company (PLC)|
A company which has limited liability and offers its shares to the public.
Method of producing consolidated financial statements (see acquisition method).
Total of goods and services bought in a period.
|Qualified Audit Opinion|
An audit opinion to the effect that: the accounts do not show a true and fair view; or the accounts show a true and fair view except for particular matters.
|Quality Of Earnings|
Opinion of investors on reliability of earnings (profit) as a basis for their forecasts.
Defined in section 262 of the Companies Act 1985 as a company that has been included in the official list in accordance with the provisions of Part VI of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, or is officially listed in an EEA state, or is admitted to dealing on either the New York Stock Exchange or the exchange known as Nasdaq.
When revenue can only be recognised when the goods or services that generated that revenue have been delivered.
A profit arising from revenue which has been earned by the entity and for which there is a reasonable prospect of cash being collected in the near future.
An item is recognised when it is included by means of words and amount within the main financial statements of an entity.
The value of an asset treated as the greater of it’s net realisable value and it’s value in use.
The amount over par value that a bond issuer must pay an investor if a security is redeemed early.
A taxable person who has complied with the registration for value added tax regulations.
|Registrar of Companies|
An official authorised by the government to maintain a record of all annual reports and other documents issued by a company.
The reinvestment rate is the amount of interest that can be earned when money is taken out of one fixed-income investment and put into another.
Qualitative characteristic of influencing the economic decisions of users.
Qualitative characteristic of being free from material error and bias, representing faithfully.
A measure of current value which estimates the cost of replacing an asset or liability at the date of the balance sheet. Justified by reference to value to the business.
The currency used by an organisation in it’s financial statements.
The claim which owners have on the assets of a company because the company has created new wealth for them over the period since it began.
The estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated cost of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of it’s useful life.
Accumulated past profits, not distributed in dividends, available to finance investment in assets.
Profit of the period remaining after dividend has been deducted.
The yield or reward from an investment.
|Return (In Relation To Investment)|
The reward earned for investing money in a business. Return may appear in the form of regular cash payments (dividends) to the investor, or in a growth in the value of the amount invested.
|Return On Capital Employed|
Operating profit before deducting interest and taxation, divided by share capital plus reserves plus long-term loans.
|Return On Shareholders’ Equity|
Profit for shareholders divided by share capital plus reserves.
|Return On Total Assets|
Operating profit before deducting interest and taxation, divided by total assets.
The claim which owners have on the assets of the business because the balance sheet records a market value for an asset that is greater than its historical cost.
Created by a transaction or event arising during the ordinary activities of the business which causes an increase in the ownership interest.
A company gives its existing shareholders the right to buy more shares in proportion to those already held.
|Risk (In Relation To Investment)|
Factors that may cause the profit or cash flows of the business to fluctuate.
An account used to record cash and credit sales transactions resulting from the sales of goods and/or services.
The section of an organisation responsible for selling it’s products and/or services.
Document sent to customers recording a sale on credit and requesting payment.
The relative proportions of individual products that make up the total units sold.
The number of units sold of each product.
The auditor of a subsidiary company who is not also the auditor of the parent company.
A secured creditor is a creditor who holds either a fixed or a floating charge over the assets of a debtor.
Loan where the lender has taken a special claim on particular assets or revenues of the company.
Reporting revenue, profit, cash flow assets , liabilities for each geographical and business segment within a business, identifying segments by the way the organisation is managed.
Bonds that mature in instalments, rather than on one maturity date.
A settlement day is the day on which trades are cleared by the delivery of the securities or foreign exchange.
The opportunity costs that arise in the solution to a linear programming model.
Name given to the total amount of cash which the shareholders have contributed to the company.
A document providing evidence of share ownership.
The claim which owners have on the assets of a company because shares have been purchased from the company at a price greater than the nominal value.
Owners of a limited liability company.
Name given to total of share capital and reserves in a company balance sheet.
The amount of share capital held by any shareholder is measured in terms of a number of shares in the total capital of the company.
Money lent to a business for a short period of time, usually repayable on demand and also repayable at the choice of the business if surplus to requirements.
An audit of the impact of an organisation on society.
A currency that is not freely convertible and for which only a thin market exists.
An individual owning and operating a business alone.
|Specific Purpose Financial Statements|
Documents containing accounting information which is prepared for a particular purpose and is not normally available to a wider audience.
In financial trading, an open position that has been covered or hedged.
A general term devised to indicate all those who might have a legitimate interest in receiving financial information about a business because they have a ‘stake’ in it.
|Standard Operating Cost|
|Standard Operating Profit|
|Statement Of Changes In Equity|
A financial statement reporting all items causing changes to the ownership interest during the financial period, under the IASB system.
|Statement Of Changes In Financial Position|
This is a US term for a cash-flow statement.
|Statement Of Principles|
A document issued by the Accounting Standards Board in the United Kingdom setting out key principles to be applied in the process of setting accounting standards.
|Statement Of Recognised Income And Expense|
A financial statement reporting realised and unrealised income and expense as part of a statement of changes in equity under the IASB system.
|Statement Of Total Recognised Gains And Losses|
A financial statement reporting changes in equity under the UK ASB system.
Loan finance that starts with a relatively low rate of interest which then increases in steps.
Taking care of resources owned by another person and using those resources to the benefit of that person.
A word with two different meanings. It may be used to describe an inventory of goods held for resale or for use in business. It may also be used to describe shares in the ownership of a company. The meaning will usually be obvious from the way in which the word is used.
|Stock Holding Period|
Average number of days for which inventory (stock) is held before use or sale.
In the USA, individuals, businesses, and groups owning stocks in a corporation.
Company in a group which is controlled by another (the parent company). Sometimes called subsidiary undertaking.
Information in the financial statements should show the economic or commercial substance of the situation.
Totals of similar items grouped together within a financial statement.
Money that has already been spent and cannot be recovered.
|Suppliers’ Payment Period|
Average number of days credit taken from suppliers.
A temporary account with which funds are deposited before allocation to the correct place. For example, if there is too much money in one account, it will be transferred to a suspense account until its correct location is discovered.
An option to enter into a swap contract.
A SWOT analysis is an incredibly simple, yet powerful tool to help you develop your business strategy, whether you’re building a startup or guiding an existing company.
|Tangible Fixed Assets|
A fixed asset (also called a non-current asset) which has a physical existence.
Charge levied by a governmental unit on income, consumption, wealth, or other basis.
The number found by adding up an individual’s personal allowances which is used to calculate that individual’s tax liability.
|Tax Reference Number|
Process of instituting a charge against a legal entity’s person, property or activity for the support of government. (For example, income taxes, sales taxes, duties and levies.)
A Tender Bond is required by a Contractor during the submission of tenders for contract jobs to the Principal.
A group of banks forming a panel to tender competitively to lend money to a company.
Qualitative characteristic that potentially conflicts with relevance.
|Times Interest Earned Ratio|
An indicator of a company’s ability to meet the interest payments on it’s debt. The times interest earned calculation is a corporation’s income before interest and income tax expense, divided by interest expense.
|Total Assets Usage|
Sales divided by total assets.
|Total Cost of Ownership|
The real, total cost of an asset. For example, an asset may cost £2,000 up-front, but have an annual renewal fee of £200; therefore, assuming it’ll have a lifespan of five years, the TCO would be £3,000.
|Total Standard Cost|
|Total Standard Production Cost|
|Total Standard Profit|
Persons who supply goods or services to a business in the normal course of trade and allow a period of credit before payment must be made.
Persons who buy goods or services from a business in the normal course of trade and are allowed a period of credit before payment is due.
A reduction from the sales list price that a business might offer to some of its customers. The amount of the trade discount will be shown on the face of the invoice as a deduction from the list price. A Settlement Discount is different.
Amounts due to suppliers (trade creditors), also called accounts payable.
Amounts due from customers (trade debtors), also called accounts receivable.
Where the characters within a number are entered in the wrong sequence.
A US term for shares that have been repurchased by the issuing company; thereby reducing the number of it’s shares on the open market.
The analysis of the performance of a company or industry over a period, by the use of accounting ratios.
A monetary pool in which tips / gratuities are collected and later shared out between all staff, e.g. in a restaurant.
|True And Fair View|
Requirement of UK company law for UK companies not using IASB system.
Ancient legal practice where one person (the grantor) transfers the legal title to an asset, called the principle or corpus, to another person (the trustee), with specific instructions about how the corpus is to be managed and disposed.
The sales of a business or other form of revenue from operations of the business.
A method of running a large organisation in which, in addition to a board of management, there is also a supervisory board.
|UK ASB system|
The accounting standards and company law applicable to corporate reporting by UK companies that do not report under the IASB system.
|Ultimate Holding Company|
A company that is the holding company of a group in which some of the subsidiary companies are themselves immediate holding companies of their own groups.
The part of an organisation’s profit that is neither allocated to a specific purpose nor paid out in dividends to shareholders.
Payments that have been received by cash, cheque, or credit card that have yet to be paid into the bank.
Qualitative characteristic of financial statements, understandable by users.
A person who examines a risk, decides whether or not it can be insured, and, if it can, works out the appropriate premium to be charged, usually on the basis of frequency of past claims for similar risks.
A undischarged bankrupt is a Bankrupt person who is not granted an ‘order of discharge’ by a court.
|Unfranked Investment Income|
An unincorporated association is an association of people that is not a corporation and which has no legal personality distinct from that of it’s members.
|Unissued Share Capital|
|Unit Of Account|
|Unit Standard Operating Profit|
|Unit Standard Production Cost|
|Unit Standard Selling Price|
|United Nations Board Of Auditors|
Limited liability company whose shares are not listed on any stock exchange.
Cheques paid out which are passing through the bank clearing system, but have not yet been presented to the bank where the account is maintained.
Gains and losses representing changes in values of assets and liabilities that are not realised through sale or use.
A business that is not VAT registered. It ignores VAT and treats it as part of the cost of purchases. It does not charge VAT on its outputs. It does not need to maintain any record of VAT paid.
Those who have no claim against particular assets when a company is wound up, but must take their turn for any share of what remains.
Loan in respect of which the lender has taken no special claim against any assets.
|Unsecured Loan Stock|
A loan stock or debenture in which no specific assets have been set aside as a fund out of which the holders could be paid in priority to other creditors in the event of non-payment.
|Urgent Issues Task Force|
|Useful Economic Life|
|Value Added Statement|
|Value Added Tax|
The Value Added Tax, or VAT, in the European Union is a general, broadly based consumption tax assessed on the value added to goods and services.
|Value At Risk|
Value At Risk (VAR) is a mechanism for measuring market risk and credit risk.
The value chain is the chain of activities by which a good or service is produced, distributed, and marketed.
Any variable that significantly affects the value of an organisation.
|Value For Money Audit|
An audit of a governmental department, charity or other not-for-profit organisation to assess whether or not it’s functioning efficiently and giving value for the money it spends.
|Value In Use|
The value of an asset calculated by discounting the future cash flows obtainable from it’s continued use.
An investment strategy which is guided by a view of the real underlying value of a company and it’s long-term growth potential.
|Value To The Business|
An idea used in deciding on a measure of current value.
|Variable Overhead Cost|
|Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance|
|Variable Overhead Expenditure Variance|
|Variable Overhead Total Variance|
|Variable Production Overhead|
A bond, typically with a fixed maturity, of which the interest coupon is adjusted at regular intervals to reflect the prevailing market rate.
Examples of variable-rate securities are floating-rate notes, euro-bonds and 90-day certificates of deposits.
The difference between a planned, budgeted or standard cost and the actual cost incurred. An adverse variance arises when the actual cost is greater than the standard cost. A favourable variance arises when the actual cost is less than the standard cost.
A type of placing used as a method of financing a takeover in which the purchasing company issues its own shares as payment to the company being bought, with the prearranged agreement that these shares are then placed with investors in exchange for cash.
The principle that the reliability of the financial information provided by a company should be open to confirmation.
An substantive auditing test that confirms on the existence, ownership and valuation of assets and liabilities.
Vertical disintegration is said to occur when a company withdraws from a stage in the value chain, usually because it decides it would be more cost effective to hire another company to carry out said activities.
A benefit to which an employee has full entitlement and one which he will retain in any circumstance.
An interest in property that is certain to come about rather than one dependent upon some event that may not happen. (or) An involvement in the outcome of some business, scheme, plan, transaction, usually in anticipation of some personal gain.
|View To Resale|
Grounds on which a subsidiary undertaking may be excluded from the consolidated financial statements of a group.
The process of moving money from one financial account or part of a budget (a plan for how the money will be spent) to a different one. For example, within the Government where one department underspends and another department needs more funding, the funds can be procured through virement.
The CVA is a form of composition, similar to the personal IVA (individual voluntary arrangement), where an insolvency procedure allows a company with debt problems or that is insolvent to reach a voluntary agreement with its business creditors regarding repayment of all, or part of its corporate debts over an agreed period of time.
A substantive test in an audit to check that the underlying records correctly show the nature of transactions entering into by the business being audited.
Payments made to employees for their services. Wages are classified as business expenses.
A government stock issued during wartime; It has no redemption date and pays only 3.5% interest.
The storage of goods in a warehouse. (Or) The building up of a holding of shares in a company prior to making a takeover bid.
A security that offers the owner the right to subscribe to the ordinary shares of a company at a fixed date, usually for a fixed price. (or) A document that serves as confirmation that goods have been deposited in a public warehouse.
In recent years this part of the financial sector has grown rapidly as a result of an increase in the number of wealthy individuals across the world.
|Wear And Tear|
A diminution in the value to an organisation of a fixed asset due to the use and damage that it sustains through it’s working life.
An arithmetic average that takes into account the importance of the items making up the average.
Denoting to a business that has very few tangible assets. (or) Denoting that part of the economy that is based on ideas and information rather than trade in physical goods.
The accounting definition of this term derives from the English definition for the term White Knight. Someone or something that rescues or saves another person or thing from a bad situation especially : a company that buys a second company in order to prevent it from being taken over by a third company.
|Wholesale Market Broker’s Assocation|
The trade association for UK trade brokers operating within the money market.
A generic term given for a manufactured good.
A strike initiated by a group of employees without being organised nor supported by their trade union.
A document giving directions as to the allocation and disposal of a person’s property after death.
|Windfall Gains And Losses|
Gains and losses arising from actual or prospective receipts that differ from those originally predicted.
The amount of money that’s withheld from an employees salary and paid (by the employer) to the correct authority. Some examples include pension schemes and national insurance.
A qualified endorsement on such a negotiable instrument, by which the endorser protects himself or herself from liability to subsequent holders.
Cost of partly completed goods or services, intended for completion and recorded as an asset.
A system making income support for the unemployed conditional on their performing some form of work for which they are suitable.
Finance provided to support the short-term assets of the business (stocks and debtors) to the extent that these are not financed by short-term creditors. It is calculated as current assets minus current liabilities.
|Working Capital Cycle|
Total of stock holding period plus customers collection period minus suppliers payment period.
|World Trade Organisation|
The World Trade Organisation is an international body that supervises and encourages international trade.
A partial value reduction of an asset. A write-down is a non cash expense that affects profits.
In accounting, writing off is the expensing of a balance sheet asset that has no future benefits.
|Written Down Value|
The value of an asset for tax purposes after taking account of it’s reduction in value below the initial cost, as a result of it’s use in the trade.
Termination of employment by the employer contrary to the employee’s contract of employment.
A graph’s horizontal base which indicates the total number of units or other units of volume or activity for the amounts indicated by the y-axis.
X-efficiency describes a company’s inability to get the maximum output for its inputs due to a lack of competitive pressure.
The Xu is a monetary unit of Vietnam; It’s worth one hundredth of a dong.
A bond issued in the US by a foreign borrower.
An international agreement by which many former French colonies became associates of the European Community.
Year end is the end of a business’s accounting year. It’s short for ‘accounting year end’.
A UK local authority bond that is redeemable one year after issue.
The colloquial name for Admission of Securities to Listing, a book issued by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) that lays out the regulations of admission to the Official List of the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and the obligations of companies with listed securities.
The Japanese currency unit.
The annual income provided by an investment.
The difference between the yields on two bonds.
Yuan (CNY) is the standard monetary unit of China, and divisible into 10 jiao or 100 fen.
Short for “young urban professional” or “young, upwardly-mobile professional”. Yuppie is a term coined in the early 1980’s for a young professional person working in a city.
It differs from a keiretsu in having a bank as it’s dominant member. Historically, a family-controlled vertically integrated cartel of industrial and financial business that existed in Japan prior to World War 2. Although, the zaibatsu were officially dissolved in 1946, the 3 largest ones, Mitsui, Mitsubishi and Sumito, gave rise to respective enterprise groups
A discount zero-coupon bond, in which accrued income is taxed annually rather than upon redemption.
|Zero Coupon Bonds|
A bond without a stated interest rate.
Zero defects is a Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy that reinforces the notion that mistakes are not acceptable and aims to change workers’ attitudes to quality by stressing the importance of error-free performance.
|Zero Hour Contact|
A zero-hour contract is an employment contract whereby an employee is not guaranteed any fixed working hours.
|Zero Interest Rate|
The monetary policy of maintaining a nominal interest rate of 0%.
A cash flow budget in which the manager responsible for it’s preparation is required to prepare for and justify the budgeted expenditure from a zero base. i.e. assuming that initially there is no commitment to spend on any activity. Rather than the previous year’s budget being the starting point for the next budget, a zero-based budget assumes no activities: everything in the budget must be justified.
Denoting goods on which the buyer pays no VAT although the seller can claim back any tax he/she has paid.
A business that only supplies zero-rated goods and services. It does not charge VAT to its customers but it receives a refund of VAT on goods and services it purchases.
In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant’s gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants.
A format for storing compressed versions of one or more files within a single archive file (a ZIP file).
The US version of a postal code.
The standard monetary unit of Poland, divided into 100 groszy.
|Zone Of Possible Agreement|
In a negotiation or business discussion, that area in which the parties may eventually find common ground to resolve their differences and conclude a deal.
A pricing strategy in which which a company delineates two or more geographic areas (zones).
Zoning is the system of specifying that certain activities may only be carried out in particular areas.