UK Accounting Glossary
Individuals with higher incomes are charged more taxes not because they use more government goods and services but because they have the ability to pay more. The primary indicator of ability to pay is commonly agreed to be income. Ability-to-pay principle is therefore in contrast with the benefit approach principle, which determines the amount of taxes a person should pay by the benefits received in public services. Ability-to-pay principle is based not on the benefits received but on the notion of equal sacrifice. It is considered to be characteristic of socialist sentiment, and is used in most industrialized economies; but equality of sacrifice is open to interpretation as it can be measured in absolute, proportional or marginal terms.
The ability-to-pay principle was extended by the Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), the French political economist Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) and the English economist John Stuart Mill (1806-1873).
The most popular variant of the ability-to-pay principle is called the equal marginal sacrifice principle.
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This glossary post was last updated: 20th March 2020.