Business, Legal & Accounting Glossary
Discounts and allowances are reductions to a basic price. They could modify either the manufacturer’s list price (determined by the manufacturer and often printed on the package), the retail price (set by the retailer and often attached to the product with a sticker), or the list price (which is quoted to a potential buyer, usually in written form). The market price (also called effective price) is the amount actually paid. The purpose of discounts is to increase short-term sales, move out-of-date stock, reward valuable customers, or encourage distribution channel members to perform a function.
Some discounts and allowances are forms of sales promotion.
The most common types of discounts and allowances are:
These are intended to speed payment and thereby provide liquidity to the firm. They are sometimes used as a promotional device.
Some retailers (particularly small retailers with low margins) offer discounts to customers paying with cash, to avoid paying fees on credit card transactions.
These are price reductions given for large purchases. The rationale behind them is to obtain economies of scale and pass some (or all) of these savings on to the customer. In some industries, buyer groups and co-ops have formed to take advantage of these discounts.
Generally, there are two types:
These are payments to distribution channel members for performing some function. Examples of these functions are warehousing and shelf stocking. Trade discounts are often combined to include a series of functions, for example, 20/12/5 could indicate a 20% discount for warehousing the product, an additional 12% discount for shipping the product, and an additional 5% discount for keeping the shelves stocked. Trade discounts are most frequent in industries where retailers hold the majority of the power in the distribution channel (referred to as channel captains).
These are price reductions given when an order is placed in a slack period (example: purchasing skis in April in the northern hemisphere, or in September in the southern hemisphere). On a shorter time scale, a happy hour may fall in this category.
This is where the purchaser doesn’t pay for the goods until well after they arrive.
The date on the invoice is moved forward – example: purchase goods in November for sale during the December holiday season, but the payment date on the invoice is January 7th.
These are price reductions given to the buyer for performing some promotional activity.
These include an allowance for creating and maintaining an in-store display or a co-op advertising allowance.
From the point of view of the manufacturer, any brokerage fee paid is similar to a promotional allowance.
It is usually based on a percentage of the sales generated by the broker.
This can be a way of reducing the price. By offering more for a trade-in than it is actually worth, the net effect is to reduce the effective price earned by the seller. The advantage of this is it encourages replacement sales without altering the list price or the perceived value.
An extreme form of quantity discount is when, within a quantity range, the price does not depend on quantity:
These also apply in the case of a service with “quantity” referring to time. For example, an entrance ticket for a zoo is usually for a day; if one stays shorter, the price is the same. It is a kind of pass for unlimited use of a service during a day, where one can distinguish whether or not, when leaving and returning, one has to pay again. Similarly, a pass can be for another period. In the case of long periods, it is obvious that one can leave and return without paying again.
If one has to buy more than one wants, we can distinguish between the surplus just not being used, or the surplus being a nuisance, e.g. because of having to carry a large container.
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This glossary post was last updated: 20th April, 2020 | 1,197 Views.