Affirmative Defense

Business, Legal & Accounting Glossary

Definition: Affirmative Defense


Affirmative Defense

Quick Summary of Affirmative Defense


An explanation for a defendant’s actions that excuses or justifies his behavior. For example, acting in self-defense is a common affirmative defense to a charge of battery or homicide. Other affirmative defenses include insanity, duress and intoxication.




What is the dictionary definition of Affirmative Defense?

Dictionary Definition


n. part of an answer to a charge or complaint in which a defendant takes the offense and responds to the allegations with his/her own charges, which are called “affirmative defenses.” These defenses can contain allegations, take the initiative against statements of facts contrary to those stated in the original complaint against them, and include various defenses based on legal principles. Many of these defenses fall into the “boilerplate” (stated in routine, non-specific language) category, but one or more of the defenses may help the defendant.


Full Definition of Affirmative Defense


A new fact or set of facts that operates to defeat a claim even if the facts supporting that claim are true.

A plaintiff sets forth a claim in a civil action by making statements in the document called the complaint. These statements must be sufficient to warrant relief from the court. The defendant responds to the plaintiff’s claims by preparing an answer in which the defendant may deny the truth of the plaintiff’s allegations or assert that there are additional facts that constitute a defense to the plaintiff’s action. For example, a plaintiff may demand compensation for damage done to his or her vehicle in an automobile accident. Without denying responsibility for the accident, the defendant may claim to have an affirmative defense, such as the plaintiff’s contributory negligence or expiration of the statute of limitations.

An affirmative defense is also allowed under the rules of Criminal Procedure. For example, a defendant accused of assault may claim to have been intoxicated or insane, to have struck out in self-defense, or to have had an alibi for the night in question. Any one of these affirmative defenses must be asserted by showing that there are facts in addition to the ones in the indictment or information charging the defendant and that those additional facts are legally sufficient to excuse the defendant.

The rules that govern pleading in most courts require a defendant to raise all affirmative defenses when first responding to the civil claim or criminal charges against him or her. Failure to do so may preclude the assertion of that kind of defense later in the trial.

Examples

  • Civil Law Affirmative Defenses
  • Contributory Negligence
  • Assumption of Risk
  • Duress
  • Self-Defense
  • Necessity
  • Criminal Law Affirmative Defenses
  • Insanity Defense
  • Self-Defense
  • Necessity
  • Defense of property

Cite Term


To help you cite our definitions in your bibliography, here is the proper citation layout for the three major formatting styles, with all of the relevant information filled in.

Page URL
https://payrollheaven.com/define/affirmative-defense/
Modern Language Association (MLA):
Affirmative Defense. PayrollHeaven.com. Payroll & Accounting Heaven Ltd.
January 26, 2022 https://payrollheaven.com/define/affirmative-defense/.
Chicago Manual of Style (CMS):
Affirmative Defense. PayrollHeaven.com. Payroll & Accounting Heaven Ltd.
https://payrollheaven.com/define/affirmative-defense/ (accessed: January 26, 2022).
American Psychological Association (APA):
Affirmative Defense. PayrollHeaven.com. Retrieved January 26, 2022
, from PayrollHeaven.com website: https://payrollheaven.com/define/affirmative-defense/

Definition Sources


Definitions for Affirmative Defense are sourced/syndicated and enhanced from:

  • A Dictionary of Economics (Oxford Quick Reference)
  • Oxford Dictionary Of Accounting
  • Oxford Dictionary Of Business & Management

This glossary post was last updated: 8th October, 2021 | 1 Views.